Goa | Wikipedia audio article

Goa | Wikipedia audio article

October 10, 2019 0 By Luis Garrison


Goa ( (listen)) is a state on the western
coast of India, within the region known as the Konkan. It is bounded by Maharashtra to
the north and Karnataka to the east and south, with the Arabian Sea forming its western coast.
It is India’s smallest state by area and the fourth-smallest by population. Goa has the
highest GDP per capita among all Indian states, two and a half times that of the country.
It was ranked the best-placed state by the Eleventh Finance Commission for its infrastructure
and ranked on top for the best quality of life in India by the National Commission on
Population based on the 12 Indicators.Panaji is the state’s capital, while Vasco da Gama
is its largest city. The historic city of Margao still exhibits the cultural influence
of the Portuguese, who first landed in the early 16th century as merchants and conquered
it soon thereafter. Goa is a former Portuguese province; the Portuguese overseas territory
of Portuguese India existed for about 450 years until it was annexed by India in 1961.Goa
is visited by large numbers of international and domestic tourists each year for its white
sand beaches, nightlife, places of worship and World Heritage-listed architecture. It
has rich flora and fauna, owing to its location on the Western Ghats range, a biodiversity
hotspot.==Etymology==
In ancient literature, Goa was known by many names, such as Gomanchala, Gopakapattana,
Gopakapattam, Gopakapuri, Govapuri, Govem, and Gomantak. Other historical names for Goa
are Sindapur, Sandabur, and Mahassapatam.==History==Rock art engravings found in Goa exhibit the
earliest traces of human life in India. Goa, situated within the Shimoga-Goa Greenstone
Belt in the Western Ghats (an area composed of metavolcanics, iron formations and ferruginous
quartzite), yields evidence for Acheulean occupation. Rock art engravings (petroglyphs)
are present on laterite platforms and granite boulders in Usgalimal near the west flowing
Kushavati river and in Kajur. In Kajur, the rock engravings of animals, tectiforms and
other designs in granite have been associated with what is considered to be a megalithic
stone circle with a round granite stone in the centre. Petroglyphs, cones, stone-axe,
and choppers dating to 10,000 years ago have been found in various locations in Goa, including
Kazur, Mauxim, and the Mandovi-Zuari basin. Evidence of Palaeolithic life is visible at
Dabolim, Adkon, Shigao, Fatorpa, Arli, Maulinguinim, Diwar, Sanguem, Pilerne, and Aquem-Margaon.
Difficulty in carbon dating the laterite rock compounds poses a problem for determining
the exact time period. Early Goan society underwent radical change
when Indo-Aryan and Dravidian migrants amalgamated with the aboriginal locals, forming the base
of early Goan culture.In the 3rd century BC, Goa was part of the Maurya Empire, ruled by
the Buddhist emperor, Ashoka of Magadha. Buddhist monks laid the foundation of Buddhism in Goa.
Between the 2nd century BC and the 6th century AD, Goa was ruled by the Bhojas of Goa. Chutus
of Karwar also ruled some parts as feudatories of the Satavahanas of Kolhapur (2nd century
BC to the 2nd century AD), Western Kshatrapas (around 150 AD), the Abhiras of Western Maharashtra,
Bhojas of the Yadav clans of Gujarat, and the Konkan Mauryas as feudatories of the Kalachuris.
The rule later passed to the Chalukyas of Badami, who controlled it between 578 and
753, and later the Rashtrakutas of Malkhed from 753 to 963. From 765 to 1015, the Southern
Silharas of Konkan ruled Goa as the feudatories of the Chalukyas and the Rashtrakutas. Over
the next few centuries, Goa was successively ruled by the Kadambas as the feudatories of
the Chalukyas of Kalyani. They patronised Jainism in Goa.In 1312, Goa came under the
governance of the Delhi Sultanate. The kingdom’s grip on the region was weak, and by 1370 it
was forced to surrender it to Harihara I of the Vijayanagara empire. The Vijayanagara
monarchs held on to the territory until 1469, when it was appropriated by the Bahmani sultans
of Gulbarga. After that dynasty crumbled, the area fell into the hands of the Adil Shahis
of Bijapur, who established as their auxiliary capital the city known under the Portuguese
as Velha Goa (or Old Goa). In 1510, the Portuguese defeated the ruling
Bijapur sultan Yusuf Adil Shah with the help of a local ally, Timayya. They set up a permanent
settlement in Velha Goa. This was the beginning of Portuguese rule in Goa that would last
for four and a half centuries, until its annexation in 1961. The Goa Inquisition, a formal tribunal,
was established in 1560, and was finally abolished in 1812.In 1843 the Portuguese moved the capital
to Panaji from Velha Goa. By the mid-18th century, Portuguese Goa had expanded to most
of the present-day state limits. Simultaneously the Portuguese lost other possessions in India
until their borders stabilised and formed the Estado da Índia Portuguesa or State of
Portuguese India, of which Goa was the largest territory.After India gained independence
from the British in 1947, India requested that Portuguese territories on the Indian
subcontinent be ceded to India. Portugal refused to negotiate on the sovereignty of its Indian
enclaves. On 19 December 1961, the Indian Army invaded with Operation Vijay resulting
in the annexation of Goa, and of Daman and Diu islands into the Indian union. Goa, along
with Daman and Diu, was organised as a centrally administered union territory of India. On
30 May 1987, the union territory was split, and Goa was made India’s twenty-fifth state,
with Daman and Diu remaining a union territory.==Geography and climate=====Geography===Goa encompasses an area of 3,702 km2 (1,429
sq mi). It lies between the latitudes 14°53′54″ N and 15°40′00″ N and longitudes 73°40′33″
E and 74°20′13″ E. Goa is a part of the coastal country known
as the Konkan, which is an escarpment rising up to the Western Ghats range of mountains,
which separate it from the Deccan Plateau. The highest point is the Sonsogor, with an
altitude of 1,167 metres (3,829 ft). Goa has a coastline of 101 km (63 mi).
Goa’s seven major rivers are the Zuari, Mandovi, Terekhol, Chapora, Galgibag, Kumbarjua canal,
Talpona and the Sal. The Zuari and the Mandovi are the most important rivers, interspaced
by the Kumbarjua canal, forming a major estuarine complex. These rivers are fed by the Southwest
monsoon rain and their basin covers 69% of the state’s geographical area. These rivers
are some of the busiest in India. Goa has more than 40 estuarine, eight marine, and
about 90 riverine islands. The total navigable length of Goa’s rivers is 253 km (157 mi).
Goa has more than 300 ancient water-tanks built during the rule of the Kadamba dynasty
and over 100 medicinal springs. The Mormugao harbour on the mouth of the River
Zuari is one of the best natural harbours in South Asia.
Most of Goa’s soil cover is made up of laterites rich in ferric-aluminium oxides and reddish
in colour. Further inland and along the riverbanks, the soil is mostly alluvial and loamy. The
soil is rich in minerals and humus, thus conducive to agriculture. Some of the oldest rocks in
the Indian subcontinent are found in Goa between Molem and Anmod on Goa’s border with Karnataka.
The rocks are classified as Trondjemeitic Gneiss estimated to be 3,600 million years
old, dated by rubidium isotope dating. A specimen of the rock is exhibited at Goa University.===Climate===Goa features a tropical monsoon climate under
the Köppen climate classification. Goa, being in the tropical zone and near the Arabian
Sea, has a hot and humid climate for most of the year. The month of May is usually the
hottest, seeing daytime temperatures of over 35 °C (95 °F) coupled with high humidity.
The state’s three seasons are: Southwest monsoon period (June – September), post-monsoon
period (October – January) and fair weather period (February – May). Over 90% of the
average annual rainfall (120 inches) is received during the monsoon season.==Subdivisions==The state is divided into two districts: North
Goa and South Goa. Each district is administered by a district collector, appointed by the
Indian government. Panaji is the headquarters of North Goa district
and is also the capital of Goa. North Goa is further divided into three subdivisions
– Panaji, Mapusa, and Bicholim; and five taluks – Ilhas de Goa (Tiswadi), Bardez
(Mapusa), Pernem, Bicholim, and Sattari (Valpoi), Margão is the headquarters of South Goa district.
South Goa is further divided into five subdivisions – Ponda, Mormugao (Vasco da Gama), Margao,
Quepem, and Dharbandora; and seven taluks – Ponda, Mormugao, Salcete (Margao), Quepem,
and Canacona (Chaudi), Sanguem, and Dharbandora. (Ponda Taluka shifted from North Goa to South
Goa in January 2015). Goa’s major cities include Panaji, Margao,
Vasco da Gama, Mapusa, Ponda and Valpoi. Panaji has the only Municipal Corporation
in Goa. There are thirteen Municipal Councils: Margao,
Mormugao (including Vasco da Gama), Pernem, Mapusa, Bicholim, Sanquelim, Valpoi, Ponda,
Cuncolim, Quepem, Curchorem, Sanguem, and Canacona. Goa has a total number of 334 villages.==Government and politics==The politics of Goa are a result of the uniqueness
of this region due to 450 years of Portuguese rule, in comparison to three centuries of
British colonialism experienced by the rest of India. The Indian National Congress was
unable to achieve electoral success in the first two decades after the State’s incorporation
into India. Instead, the state was dominated by the regional political parties like Maharashtrawadi
Gomantak Party and the United Goans Party. Government
In the Parliament of India, Goa has two seats in the Lok Sabha (House of the People), one
representing each district, and one seat in the Rajya Sabha (Council of the States).
Goa’s administrative capital is Panaji in English, Pangim in Portuguese, and Ponjê
in the local language. It lies on the left bank of the Mandovi. The seat of the Goa Legislative
Assembly is in Porvorim, across the Mandovi from Panaji. As the state comes under the
Bombay High Court, Panaji has a bench of it. Unlike other states, which follow the British
Indian model of civil laws framed for individual religions, the Portuguese Goa Civil Code,
a uniform code based on the Napoleonic code, has been retained in Goa.
Goa has a unicameral legislature of 40 members, headed by a speaker. The Chief Minister heads
the executive, which is made up from the party or coalition elected with a majority in the
legislature. The Governor, the head of the state, is appointed by the President of India.
After having stable governance for nearly thirty years up to 1990, Goa is now notorious
for its political instability having seen fourteen governments in the span of the fifteen
years between 1990 and 2005. In March 2005 the assembly was dissolved by the Governor
and President’s Rule was declared, which suspended the legislature. A by-election in June 2005
saw the Indian National Congress coming back to power after winning three of the five seats
that went to polls. The Congress Party and the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) are the two
largest parties in the state. In the assembly poll of 2007, the INC-led coalition won and
formed the government. In the 2012 Vidhan Sabha Elections, the Bharatiya Janata Party
along with the Maharashtrawadi Gomantak Party won a clear majority, forming the new government
with Manohar Parrikar as the Chief Minister. Other parties include the United Goans Democratic
Party, the Nationalist Congress Party. In the 2017 assembly elections, the Indian National
Congress gained the most seats, with the BJP coming in second. However, no party was able
to gain a majority in the 40 member house. The BJP was invited to form the Government
by Governor Mridula Sinha. The Congress claimed the use of money power on the part of the
BJP and took the case to the Supreme Court. However, the Manohar Parikkar led Government
was able to prove its majority in the Supreme Court mandated “floor test”.==Flora and fauna==Equatorial forest cover in Goa stands at 1,424
km2 (549.81 sq mi), most of which is owned by the government. Government owned forest
is estimated at 1,224.38 km2 (472.74 sq mi) whilst private is given as 200 km2 (77.22
sq mi). Most of the forests in the state are located in the interior eastern regions of
the state. The Western Ghats, which form most of eastern Goa, have been internationally
recognised as one of the biodiversity hotspots of the world. In the February 1999 issue of
National Geographic Magazine, Goa was compared with the Amazon and the Congo basins for its
rich tropical biodiversity.Goa’s wildlife sanctuaries boast of more than 1512 documented
species of plants, over 275 species of birds, over 48 kinds of animals and over 60 genera
of reptiles.Goa is also known for its coconut cultivation. The coconut tree has been reclassified
by the government as a palm (like a grass), enabling farmers and real estate developers
to clear land with fewer restrictions. Rice is the main food crop, and pulses (legume),
Ragi (Finger Millet) and other food crops are also grown. Main cash crops are coconut,
cashewnut, arecanut, sugarcane and fruits like pineapple, mango and banana. Goa’s state
animal is the Gaur, the state bird is the Ruby Throated Yellow Bulbul, which is a variation
of Black-crested Bulbul, and the state tree is the Matti(Asna). The important forests products are bamboo
canes, Maratha barks, chillar barks and the bhirand. Coconut trees are ubiquitous and
are present in almost all areas of Goa barring the elevated regions. A large number of deciduous
trees, such as teak, Sal tree, cashew and mango trees are present. Fruits include jackfruit,
mango, pineapple and “black-berry” (“podkoam” in Konkani language). Goa’s forests are rich
with medicinal plants.Foxes, wild boar and migratory birds are found in the jungles of
Goa. The avifauna (bird species) includes kingfisher, myna and parrot. Numerous types
of fish are also caught off the coast of Goa and in its rivers. Crab, lobster, shrimp,
jellyfish, oysters and catfish are the basis of the marine fishery. Goa also has a high
snake population. Goa has many famous “National Parks”, including the renowned Salim Ali Bird
Sanctuary on the island of Chorão. Other wildlife sanctuaries include the Bondla Wildlife
Sanctuary, Molem Wildlife Sanctuary, Cotigao Wildlife Sanctuary, Madei Wildlife Sanctuary,
Netravali Wildlife Sanctuary, and Mahaveer Wildlife Sanctuary.
Goa has more than 33% of its geographic area under government forests (1224.38 km²) of
which about 62% has been brought under Protected Areas (PA) of Wildlife Sanctuaries and National
Park. Since there is a substantial area under private forests and a large tract under cashew,
mango, coconut, etc. plantations, the total forest and tree cover constitutes 56.6% of
the geographic area.==Economy==Goa’s state domestic product for 2017 is estimated
at $11 billion at current prices. Goa is India’s richest state with the highest GDP per capita
– two and a half times that of the country – with one of its fastest growth rates:
8.23% (yearly average 1990–2000). Tourism is Goa’s primary industry: it gets
12% of foreign tourist arrivals in India. Goa has two main tourist seasons: winter and
summer. In winter, tourists from abroad (mainly Europe) come, and summer (which, in Goa, is
the rainy season) sees tourists from across India. Goa’s net state domestic product (NSDP)
was around US$7.24 billion in 2015–16.The land away from the coast is rich in minerals
and ores, and mining forms the second largest industry. Iron, bauxite, manganese, clays,
limestone and silica are mined. The Mormugao port handled 31.69 million tonnes of cargo
last year, which was 39% of India’s total iron ore exports. Sesa Goa (now owned by Vedanta
Resources) and Dempo are the lead miners. Rampant mining has been depleting the forest
cover as well as posing a health hazard to the local population. Corporations are also
mining illegally in some areas. During 2015–16, the total traffic handled by Mormugao port
was recorded to be 20.78 million tones. Agriculture, while of shrinking importance
to the economy over the past four decades, offers part-time employment to a sizeable
portion of the populace. Rice is the main agricultural crop, followed by areca, cashew
and coconut. Fishing employs about 40,000 people, though recent official figures indicate
a decline of the importance of this sector and also a fall in catch, due perhaps, to
traditional fishing giving way to large-scale mechanised trawling.
Medium scale industries include the manufacturing of pesticides, fertilisers, tyres, tubes,
footwear, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, wheat products, steel rolling, fruits and fish canning,
cashew nuts, textiles, brewery products. Currently there are 16 planned SEZs in Goa.
The Goa government has recently decided to not allow any more special economic zones
(SEZs) in Goa after strong opposition to them by political parties and the powerful Goa
Catholic Church.Goa is also notable for its low priced beer, wine and spirits prices due
to its very low excise duty on alcohol. Another main source of cash inflow to the state is
remittance, from many of its citizens who work abroad, to their families. It is said
to have some of the largest bank savings in the country.
Goa is the second state in India to achieve a 100 per cent automatic telephone system
with a solid network of telephone exchanges. As of September 2017, Goa had a total installed
power generation capacity of 547.88 MW. Goa is also one of the few states in India to
achieve 100 per cent rural electrification.==Demographics=====Population===A native of Goa is called a Goan. Goa has
a population of 1.459 million residents, making it India’s fourth smallest (after Sikkim,
Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh). The population has a growth rate of 8.23% per decade. There
are 394 people for each square kilometre of land which is higher than national average
382 per km2. Goa is the state with highest proportion of urban population with 62.17%
of the population living in urban areas. The sex ratio is 973 females to 1,000 males. The
birth rate is 15.70 per 1,000 people in 2007. Goa also is the state with lowest proportion
of Scheduled Tribes at 0.04%. A relatively small Goan-Portuguese mixed race
population resulted from Portuguese colonization, one estimate being that less than 100 mestiço
families left in 1961 when Portugal lost the colony.===Languages===The Goa, Daman and Diu Official Language Act,
1987 makes Konkani in the Devanagari script the sole official language of Goa, but provides
that Marathi may also be used “for all or any of the official purposes”. Portuguese
was the sole official language during Portuguese colonial rule. It is now, however, mostly
spoken by only the elderly Portuguese-educated populations and is no longer an official language.The
Government also has a policy of replying in Marathi to correspondence received in Marathi.
Whilst there have been demands for according Konkani in the Roman script official status
in the state, there is widespread support for keeping Konkani as the sole official language
of Goa. It is however notable to mention that the entire liturgy and communication of the
Catholic church in Goa is done solely in the Roman script of Konkani.
Konkani is spoken as a native language by about 57% of the people in the state but almost
all Goans can speak and understand Konkani. Other linguistic minorities in the state as
per the 2001 census are speakers of Marathi (23%), Kannada (5.5%), Hindi (5.7%), and Urdu
(4%).Until 1987, Konkani was neither the official nor administrative language used by the various
rulers of the State. Under the Kadambas (c. 960 – 1310) the court language was Kannada,
a Dravidian language, and when under Muslim rule (1312-1370 and 1469-1510), the official
and cultural language was Persian; various stones in the Goa Archaeological Museum from
the period are inscribed in Kannada and Persian. During the intervening periods of Muslim rule,
the Vijayanagara control of the State mandated the use of Telugu, another Dravidian language.===Religion===According to the 2011 census, in a population
of 1,458,545 people, 66.1% were Hindu, 25.1% were Christian, and 8.3% were Muslim. Smaller
minorities of about 0.1% each followed Sikhism, Buddhism, or Jainism.Due to the economic decline
of the Estado da India from the eighteenth century, there was a large scale migration
of Goan Catholics. The local Indian Christians were called “indiacatos” and the mixed population,
mestiços by the Portuguese. The population moved from 64.5% Christians and 35% Hindus
in 1851 to 50% Christians and 50% Hindus in 1900, with a steady increase in the Hindu
proportion from then onwards.The Catholics in Goa state and Daman and Diu union territory
are served by the Metropolitan Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Goa and Daman, the primatial
see of India, in which the titular Patriarchate of the East Indies is vested.==Tourism==Tourism is generally focused on the coastal
areas of Goa, with decreased tourist activity inland. In 2010, there were more than 2 million
tourists reported to have visited Goa, about 1.2 million of whom were from abroad. As of
2013, Goa was a destination of choice for Indian and foreign tourists, particularly
Britons and Russians, with limited means who wanted to party. The state was hopeful that
changes could be made which would attract a more upscale demographic.Goa stands 6th
in the Top 10 Nightlife cities in the world in National Geographic Travel. One of the
biggest tourist attractions in Goa is water sports. Beaches like Baga and Calangute offer
jet-skiing, parasailing, banana boat rides, water scooter rides, and more. Patnem beach
in Palolem stood 3rd in CNN Travel’s Top 20 Beaches in Asia.Over 450 years of Portuguese
rule and the influence of the Portuguese culture presents to visitors to Goa a cultural environment
that is not found elsewhere in India. Goa is often described as a fusion between Eastern
and Western culture with Portuguese culture having a dominant position in the state be
it in its architectural, cultural or social settings. The state of Goa is famous for its
excellent beaches, churches, and temples. The Bom Jesus Cathedral, Fort Aguada and a
new wax museum on Indian history, culture and heritage in Old Goa are other tourism
destinations.===Historic sites and neighbourhoods===
Goa has two World Heritage Sites: the Bom Jesus Basilica and churches and convents of
Old Goa. The basilica holds the mortal remains of St. Francis Xavier, regarded by many Catholics
as the patron saint of Goa (the patron of the Archdiocese of Goa is actually Saint Joseph
Vaz). These are both Portuguese-era monuments and reflect a strong European character. The
relics are taken down for veneration and for public viewing, as per the prerogative of
the Church in Goa, not every ten or twelve years as popularly thought and propagated.
The last exposition was held in 2014. Goa has the Sanctuary of Saint Joseph Vaz
in Sancoale. Pilar monastery which holds novenas of Venerable Padre Agnelo Gustavo de Souza
from 10 November to 20 November yearly. There is a claimed Marian Apparition at the Church
of Saints Simon and Jude at Batim, Ganxim, near Pilar, where Goans and non-resident Goans
visit. There is the statue of the bleeding Jesus on the Crucifix at the Santa Monica
Convent in Velha Goa. There are churches (Igorzo), like the Baroque styled Nixkollounk Gorb-Sombhov
Saibinnich Igorz (Church of the Our Lady of Immaculate Conception) in Panaji, the Gothic
styled Mater Dei (Dêv Matechi Igorz/ Mother of God) church in Saligao and each church
having its own style and heritage, besides Kopelam/ Irmidi (chapels).
The Velhas Conquistas regions are known for Goa-Portuguese style architecture. There are
many forts in Goa such as Tiracol, Chapora, Corjuem, Aguada, Reis Magos, Nanus, Mormugao,
Fort Gaspar Dias and Cabo de Rama.In many parts of Goa, mansions constructed in the
Indo-Portuguese style architecture still stand, though in some villages, most of them are
in a dilapidated condition. Fontainhas in Panaji has been declared a cultural quarter,
showcasing the life, architecture and culture of Goa. Influences from the Portuguese era
are visible in some of Goa’s temples, notably the Shanta Durga Temple, the Mangueshi Temple,
the Shri Damodar Temple and the Mahalasa Temple. After 1961, many of these were demolished
and reconstructed in the indigenous Indian style.===Museums and science centre===
Goa has three important museums: the Goa State Museum, the Naval Aviation Museum and the
National Institute of Oceanography. The aviation museum is one of three in India (the others
are in Delhi and Bengaluru). The Goa Science Centre is in Miramar, Panaji. The National
Institute of Oceanography (NIO) is in Dona Paula.==Culture==Having been a Portuguese territory for over
450 years, Goa’s culture is an interesting amalgamation of both Eastern and Western styles,
with the latter having a more dominant role. The tableau of Goa showcases religious harmony
by focusing on the Deepastambha, the Cross and Ghode Modni followed by a chariot. Western
royal attire of kings is as much part of Goa’s cultural heritage as are regional dances performed
depicting a unique blend of different religions and cultures of this State. Prominent local
festivals are Christmas, Easter, Carnival, Diwali, Shigmo, Chavoth, Samvatsar Padvo,
Dasara etc. The Goan Carnival and Christmas-new year celebrations are well known to attract
a large number of tourists. The Gomant Vibhushan Award, the highest civilian
honour of the State of Goa, is given annually by Government of Goa since 2010.===Dance and music===Traditional Goan art forms are Dekhnni, Fugdi,
Corridinho, Mando, Dulpod and Fado. Goan Catholics are fond of social gatherings and Tiatr (Teatro).
As part of its Portuguese history, music is an integral part of Goan homes. It is often
said that “Goans are born with music and sport”. Western musical instruments like the piano,
guitars and violins are widely used in most religious and social functions of the Catholics.
Goan Hindus are very fond of Natak, Bhajan and Kirtan. Many famous Indian classical singers
hail from Goa, including Mogubai Kurdikar, Kishori Amonkar, Kesarbai Kerkar, Jitendra
Abhisheki and Pandit Prabhakar Karekar.Goa is also known as the origin of Goa trance.===Theatre===Natak, Tiatr (most popular) and Jagor are
the chief forms of Goa’s traditional performance arts. Other forms are Ranmale, Dashavatari,
Kalo, Goulankala, Lalit, Kala and Rathkala. Stories from the Ramayana and the Mahabharata
along with more modern social subjects are narrated with song and dance.”Jagor”, the
traditional folk dance-drama, is performed by the Hindu Kunbi and Christian Gauda community
of Goa, to seek the Devine Grace for protection and prosperity of the crop. Literal meaning
of Jagor is “jagran” or wakeful nights. The strong belief is that the night long performance,
awakens the deities once a year and they continue to remain awake throughout the year guarding
the village. Perni Jagor is the ancient mask dance – drama
of Goa, performed by Perni families, using well crafted and painted wooden masks, depicting
various animals, birds, super natural power, deities, demons and social characters.
Gauda Jagor, is an impression of social life, that displays all the existing moods and modes
of human characters. It is predominantly based on three main characters, Gharasher, Nikhandar
and Parpati wearing shining dress and headgears. The performance is accompanied by vibrant
tunes of Goan folk instruments like Nagara/Dobe, Ghumat, Madale and Kansale.
In some places, Jagor performances are held with participation of both Hindus and Christian
community, whereby, characters are played by Hindus and musical support is provided
by Christian artistes.Tiatr (Teatro) and its artists play a major role in keeping the Konkani
language & music alive. Tiatr’s are conducted solely in the Roman script of Konkani as it
is primarily a Christian community based act. They are played in scenes with music at regular
intervals, the scenes are portrayals of daily life and are known to depict social and cultural
scenarios. Tiatrs are regularly held especially on weekends mainly at Kala Academy, Panaji,
Pai Tiatrist Hall at Ravindra Bhavan, Margao and most recent shows have also started at
the new Ravindra Bhavan, Baina, Vasco. Western Musical Instruments such as Drums, bass, Keyboards,
Trumpets etc. are part of the show and most of them are played acoustically. It is one
of Goa’s few art forms that is renowned across the world with performances popular among
Goans in the Middle-East, Americas and Europe.===Konkani cinema===Konkani cinema is an Indian film industry,
where films are made in the Konkani language, which is spoken mainly in the Indian states
of Goa, Maharashtra and Karnataka and to a smaller extent in Kerala. Konkani films have
been produced in Goa, Karnataka, Maharashtra and Kerala.The first full length Konkani film
was Mogacho Anvddo, released on 24 April 1950, and was produced and directed by A. L.Jerry
Braganza, a native of Mapusa, under the banner of ETICA Pictures. Hence, 24 April is celebrated
as Konkani Film Day.Since 2004, starting from the 35th edition, the International Film Festival
of India moved its permanent venue to Goa, it is annually held in the months of November
and December.Konkani film Paltadcho manis has been included in the world’s best films
of 2009 list.Konkani films are eligible for the National Film Award for Best Feature Film
in Konkani. The most commercially successful Konkani film (as of June 2011) is O Maria
directed by Rajendra Talak.In 2012, the whole new change adopted in Konkani Cinema by introducing
Digital Theatrical Film “The Victim” directed by Milroy Goes.Some old Konkani films are
Sukhachem Sopon, Amchem Noxib, Nirmonn, Mhoji Ghorkarn, Kortubancho Sonvsar, Jivit Amchem
Oxem, Mog ani Moipas, Bhuierantlo Munis, Suzanne, Boglantt, Padri and Bhogsonne. Ujwadu is a
2011 Konkani film directed by Kasargod Chinna and produced by KJ Dhananjaya and Anuradha
Padiyar.===Food===Rice with fish curry (xit koddi in Konkani)
is the staple diet in Goa. Goan cuisine is famous for its rich variety of fish dishes
cooked with elaborate recipes. Coconut and coconut oil are widely used in Goan cooking
along with chili peppers, spices, and vinegar is used in the Catholic cuisine, giving the
food a unique flavour. The Goan cuisine is heavily influenced by Portuguese cuisine.
Goan food may be divided into Goan Catholic and Goan Hindu cuisine with each showing very
distinct tastes, characteristics, and cooking styles. Pork dishes such as Vindalho, Xacuti,
chouriço, and Sorpotel are cooked for major occasions among the Goan Catholics. An exotic
Goan vegetable stew, known as Khatkhate, is a very popular dish during the celebrations
of festivals, Hindu and Christian alike. Khatkhate contains at least five vegetables, fresh coconut,
and special Goan spices that add to the aroma. Sannas, Hitt, are variants of idli and Polle,
Amboli, and Kailoleo are variants of dosa; all are native to Goa. A rich egg-based, multi-layered
sweet dish known as bebinca is a favourite at Christmas.
There are some places in Goa which are famous for Goa’s traditional & special cuisines.
Ros omelette is one of the most popular snacks and street foods in Goa, it is traditionally
sold on food carts on streets. The most popular alcoholic beverage in Goa
is feni; cashew feni is made from the fermentation of the fruit of the cashew tree, while coconut
feni is made from the sap of toddy palms. Urrak is another local liquor prepared from
Cashew fruit. In fact the bar culture is one of the unique aspects of the Goan villages
where a local bar serves as a meeting point for villagers to unwind. Goa also has a rich
wine culture.===Architecture===
The architecture of Goa is a combination of Goan, Ottoman and Portuguese styles. Since
the Portuguese ruled and governed for four centuries, many churches and houses bear a
striking element of the Portuguese style of architecture. Goan Hindu houses do not show
any Portuguese influence, though the modern temple architecture is an amalgam of original
Goan temple style with Dravidian, Hemadpanthi, Islamic, and Portuguese architecture. The
original Goan temple architecture fell into disuse as the temples were demolished by the
Portuguese and the Sthapati known as Thavayi in Konkani were converted to Christianity
though the wooden work and the Kavi murals can still be seen. (see:Goa:Hindu temples
and deities by Rui Gomes Pereira).==Media and communication==Goa is served by almost all television channels
available in India. Channels are received through cable in most parts of Goa. In the
interior regions, channels are received via satellite dishes. Doordarshan, the national
television broadcaster, has two free terrestrial channels on air.DTH (Direct To Home) TV services
are available from Dish TV, Videocon D2H, Tata Sky & DD Direct Plus. The All India Radio
is the only radio channel in the state that broadcasts on both FM and AM bands. Two AM
channels are broadcast, the primary channel at 1287 kHz and the Vividh Bharati channel
at 1539 kHz. AIR’s FM channel is called FM Rainbow and is broadcast at 105.4 MHz. A number
of private FM radio channels are available, Big FM at 92.7 and Radio Indigo at 91.9 MHz.
There is also an educational radio channel, Gyan Vani, run by IGNOU broadcast from Panaji
at 107.8 MHz. In 2006, St Xavier’s College, Mapusa, became the first college in the state
to launch a campus community radio station “Voice of Xavier’s”.Major cellular service
operators include Bharti Airtel, Vodafone Essar, Idea Cellular, Telenor, Reliance Infocomm,
Tata DoCoMo, BSNL CellOne and Jio.Local publications include the English language O Heraldo (Goa’s
oldest, once a Portuguese language paper), The Gomantak Times and The Navhind Times.
In addition to these, The Times of India and The Indian Express are also received from
Mumbai and Bangalore in the urban areas. The Times of India has recently started publication
from Goa itself, serving the local population news directly from the state capital. Among
the list of officially accredited newspapers are O Heraldo, The Navhind Times and The Gomantak
Times in English; Bhaangar Bhuin in Konkani (Devanagari script); and Tarun Bharat, Gomantak,
Navprabha, Goa Times, Sanatan Prabhat, Govadoot and Lokmat (all in Marathi). All are dailies.
Other publications in the state include Planet Goa (English, monthly), Goa Today (English,
monthly), Goan Observer (English, weekly), Vauraddeancho Ixtt (Roman-script Konkani,
weekly) Goa Messenger, Vasco Watch, Gulab (Konkani, monthly), Bimb (Devanagari-script
Konkani).==Sports==Normally other states are fond of cricket
but association football is the most popular sport in Goa and is embedded in Goan culture
as a result of the Portuguese influence. Its origins in the state are traced back to 1883
when the visiting Irish priest Fr. William Robert Lyons established the sport as part
of a “Christian education”. On 22 December 1959 the Associação de Futebol de Goa was
formed, which continues to administer the game in the state under the new name Goa Football
Association. Goa, along with West Bengal and Kerala is the locus of football in India and
is home to many football clubs in the national I-League. The state’s football powerhouses
include Salgaocar, Dempo, Churchill Brothers, Vasco, Sporting Clube de Goa and FC Goa. The
first Unity World Cup was held in Goa in 2014. The state’s main football stadium, Fatorda
Stadium, is located at Margao and also hosts cricket matches. The state hosted few matches
of the 2017 FIFA U-17 World Cup in Fatorda Stadium.A number of Goans have represented
India in football and six of them, namely Samir Naik, Climax Lawrence, Brahmanand Sankhwalkar,
Bruno Coutinho, Mauricio Afonso and Roberto Fernandes have all captained the national
team. Goa has its own state football team and league, the Goa Professional League. It
is probably the only state in India where cricket is not considered the most important
of all sports. Goa also has its own cricket team. Dilip Sardesai
remains the only Goan to date to play international cricket for India.The Indian Olympic Association
(IOA) has won the right to host the Asian Beach Games in 2020.==Education==Goa had India’s earliest educational institutions
built with European support. The Portuguese set up seminaries for religious education
and parish schools for elementary education. Founded circa 1542 by saint Francis Xavier,
Saint Paul’s College, Goa was a Jesuit school in Old Goa, which later became a college.
St Paul’s was once the main Jesuit institution in the whole of Asia. It housed the first
printing press in India and published the first books in 1556.
Medical education began in 1801 with the offering of regular medical courses at the Royal and
Military Hospital in the old City of Goa. Built in 1842 as the Escola Médico-Cirúrgica
de (Nova) Goa (Medical-Surgical School of Goa), Goa Medical College is one of Asia’s
oldest medical colleges and has one of the oldest medical libraries (since 1845). It
houses the largest hospital in Goa and continues to provide medical training to this day.
According to the 2011 census, Goa has a literacy rate of 87%, with 90% of males and 84% of
females being literate. Each taluka is made up of villages, each having a school run by
the government. Private schools are preferred over government run schools. All schools come
under the Goa Board of Secondary & Higher Secondary Education, whose syllabus is prescribed
by the state education department. There are also a few schools that subscribe to the all-India
ICSE syllabus or the NIOS syllabus. Most students in Goa complete their high school with English
as the medium of instruction. Most primary schools, however, use Konkani and Marathi
(in private, but government-aided schools). As is the case in most of India, enrolment
for vernacular media has seen a fall in numbers in favour of English medium education. As
per a report published in The Times of India, 84% of Goan primary schools run without an
administrative head. Some notable schools in Goa include Sharada
Mandir School in Miramar, Loyola High School in Margao and The King’s School in São José
de Areal. After ten years of schooling, students join a Higher Secondary school, which offers
courses in popular streams such as Science, Arts, Law and Commerce. A student may also
opt for a course in vocational studies. Additionally, they may join three-year diploma courses.
Two years of college is followed by a professional degree programme. Goa University, the sole
university in Goa, is located in Taleigão and most Goan colleges are affiliated to it.
There are six engineering colleges in the state. Goa Engineering College and National
Institute of Technology Goa are government funded colleges whereas the private engineering
colleges include Don Bosco College of Engineering at Fatorda, Shree Rayeshwar Institute of Engineering
and Information Technology at Shiroda, Agnel Institute of Technology and Design (AITD),
Assagao, Bardez and Padre Conceicao College of Engineering at Verna. In 2004, BITS Pilani
one of the premier institutes in India, inaugurated its second campus, the BITS Pilani Goa Campus,
at Zuarinagar near Dabolim. The Indian Institute of Technology Goa (IIT Goa) began functioning
from its temporary campus, located in Goa Engineering College since 2016. The site for
permanent campus was finalized in Cotarli, Sanguem.There are colleges offering pharmacy,
architecture and dentistry along with numerous private colleges offering law, arts, commerce
and science. There are also two National Oceanographic Science related centres: the National Centre
for Antarctic and Ocean Research in Vasco da Gama and the National Institute of Oceanography
in Dona Paula. Goa Institute of Management located at Sanquelim,
near Panaji is one of India’s premier business schools.
In addition to the engineering colleges, there are government polytechnic institutions in
Panaji, Bicholim and Curchorem, and aided institutions like Father Agnel Polytechnic
in Verna and the Institute of Shipbuilding Technology in Vasco da Gama which impart technical
and vocational training.Other colleges in Goa include Shri Damodar College of Commerce
and Economics, V.V.M’s R.M. Salgaocar Higher Secondary School in Margao, G.V.M’s S.N.J.A
higher secondary school, Don Bosco College, D.M.’s College of Arts, Science and Commerce,
St Xavier’s College, Carmel College, The Parvatibai Chowgule College, Dhempe College, Damodar
College, MES College, S. S. Samiti’s Higher Secondary School of Science and Rosary College
of Commerce & Arts.==Transportation=====Air===Goa International Airport, is a civil enclave
at INS Hansa, a Naval airfield located at Dabolim near Vasco da Gama. The airport caters
to scheduled domestic and international air services. Goa has scheduled international
connections to Doha, Dubai, Muscat, Sharjah and Kuwait in the Middle East by airlines
like Air Arabia, Air India, GoAir, Indigo, Oman Air, SpiceJet, Jet Airways, JetKonnect
and Qatar Airways. The proposed greenfield Mopa Airport will be built at Mopa in Pernem
taluka.===Road===Goa’s public transport largely consists of
privately operated buses linking the major towns to rural areas. Government-run buses,
maintained by the Kadamba Transport Corporation, link major routes (like the Panaji–Margao
route) and some remote parts of the state. The Corporation owns 15 bus stands, 4 depots
and one Central workshop at Porvorim and a Head Office at Porvorim. In large towns such
as Panajiand Margao, intra-city buses operate. However, public transport in Goa is less developed,
and residents depend heavily on their own transportation, usually motorised two-wheelers
and small family cars. Goa has four National Highways passing through
it. NH-66 (ex NH-17) runs along India’s west coast and links Goa to Mumbai in the north
and Mangalore to the south. NH-4A running across the state connects the capital Panaji
to Belgaum in east, linking Goa to cities in the Deccan. The NH-366 (ex NH-17A) connects
NH-66 to Mormugao Port from Cortalim. The new NH-566 (ex NH-17B) is a four-lane highway
connecting Mormugao Port to NH-66 at Verna via Dabolim Airport, primarily built to ease
pressure on the NH-366 for traffic to Dabolim Airport and Vasco da Gama. NH-768 (ex NH-4A)
links Panaji and Ponda to Belgaum and NH-4. Goa has a total of 224 km (139 mi) of national
highways, 232 km (144 mi) of state highway and 815 kilometres (506 miles) of district
highway. National Highways in Goa are among the narrowest in the country and will remain
so for the foreseeable future, as the state government has received an exemption that
allows narrow national highways. In Kerala, highways are 45 metres (148 feet) wide. In
other states National Highways are grade separated highways 60 metres (200 feet) wide with a
minimum of four lanes, as well as 6 or 8 lane access-controlled expressways.Hired forms
of transport include unmetered taxis and, in urban areas, auto rickshaws. Another form
of transportation in Goa is the motorcycle taxi, operated by drivers who are locally
called “pilots”. These vehicles transport a single pillion rider, at fares that are
usually negotiated. Other than buses, “pilots” tend to be the cheapest mode of transport.
River crossings in Goa are serviced by flat-bottomed ferry boats, operated by the river navigation
department.===Rail===Goa has two rail lines – one run by the
South Western Railway and the other by the Konkan Railway. The line run by the South
Western Railway was built during the colonial era linking the port town of Vasco da Gama,
Goa with Belgaum, Hubli, Karnataka via Margao. The Konkan Railway line, which was built during
the 1990s, runs parallel to the coast connecting major cities on the western coast.===Sea===
The Mormugao harbour near the city of Vasco handles mineral ore, petroleum, coal, and
international containers. Much of the shipments consist of minerals and ores from Goa’s hinterland.
Panaji, which is on the banks of the Mandovi, has a minor port, which used to handle passenger
steamers between Goa and Mumbai till the late 1980s. There was also a short-lived catamaran
service linking Mumbai and Panaji operated by Damania Shipping in the 1990s.==See also==
Outline of Goa==Citations====References==
Pearson, M. N. (2 November 2006). “The Portuguese in India”. Cambridge University Press. ISBN
978-0-521-02850-9. de Souza, Teotonio R. (1989). Essays in Goan
history. Concept Publishing Company. ISBN 978-81-7022-263-7. Retrieved 24 August 2009.
de Souza, Teotonio R. (1990). Goa Through the Ages: An economic history. Goa University
publication. 2. Concept Publishing Company. ISBN 978-81-7022-259-0. Retrieved 25 August
2009. Sakshena, R. N. (2003). Goa: Into the Mainstream.
Abhinav Publications. ISBN 978-81-7017-005-1. Retrieved 24 August 2009.
Isadora Tast: Mother India. Searching For a Place. Peperoni Books: Berlin 2009, ISBN
978-3-941825-00-0.==Further reading==
Andrada (undated). The Life of Dom John de Castro: The Fourth Vice Roy of India. Jacinto
Freire de Andrada. Translated into English by Peter Wyche. (1664). Henry Herrington,
New Exchange, London. Facsimile edition (1994) AES Reprint, New Delhi. ISBN 81-206-0900-X.==External links==GovernmentGovernment of Goa
Official Tourism Site of Goa, India Department of TourismGeneral informationGoa
Encyclopædia Britannica entry Goa at Curlie
Geographic data related to Goa at OpenStreetMap